The thieves also scrawled “traitor” in green paint across photographs of the independence leader.
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Police in Rewa, in Madhya Pradesh state, confirmed to BBC Hindi’s Shuriah Niazi that they were investigating the theft on the grounds of actions “prejudicial to national integration” and potential breach of the peace.
Mangaldeep Tiwari, caretaker of the Bapu Bhawan memorial, where the ashes were being held, said the theft was “shameful”.
“I opened the gate of the Bhawan early in the morning because it was Gandhi’s birthday,” he told Indian website The Wire. “When I returned at around 23:00 [17:30 GMT], I found the mortal remains of Gandhi missing and his poster was defaced.”
Police took action after Gurmeet Singh – leader of the local Congress political party – filed a complaint.
“This madness must stop,” Mr Singh told The Wire. “I urge Rewa police to check CCTV cameras installed inside Bapu Bhawan.”